Pathophysiology and Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics

Semmelweis University, Faculty of Medicine


The aim of the hematology practicals is to introduce the students to the basic diagnostic methods of hematologic diseases, especially to the traditional examination of blood and bone marrow smears using a light microscope.


You will have a midterm at the end of the hematological practicals. It is organized by your tutor. The result will not influence your final exam, however, you are required to pass it.

You get a blood or bone marrow smear at the final exam. You need to form an opinion about it after examining it by a light microscope. You are expected:

  • to tell if your smear is made of a peripheral blood or a bone marrow sample
  • to be able to identify individual cells in the smear (cell line and stage of development)
  • to describe the morphological characteristics of the cells using proper medical terms
  • to recognize the abnormal morphological signs
  • to tell what may have caused the abnormalities (diagnosis)
  • to know the clinical background information related to the diagnosis at least at a basic level

It is especially important to know the malignant diseases of the bone marrow!

Advice for study

Our advice is practically the same as the one we gave for studying ECG, and there is a reason. Actually, those ideas described for the ECG apply a lot more to the hematology part of the exam. Those students are the most likely to get a good hematology mark at the exam, who learn the morphological aspects of hematology at the beginning of the course, and then study as many smears at the practicals as possible, with the guidance of their tutor. The method of getting prepared for the exam that may have been successful from other subjects (that is: learning nothing during the semester, then studying very intensively in the exam period) may prove very dangerous: even if you learn very well the things described in the hematology books, your chance of recognizing the smear at the exam are very slim without actually studying many different smears using the microscope. So please make a good use of your time and the help of your tutor at the practicals!

Last change: 2011.06.29 17:14